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When firefighters should stop fighting

No one should ever die to save a house.

The 19 firefighters killed in Arizona recently should be honored as the fallen heroes they are. Members of an elite unit, they were trained to hike for miles across remote, difficult terrain with 40 pounds of gear and clear vegetation to keep fires from spreading. The Granite Mountain Hotshots were caught by an advancing wildfire near Yarnell, Ariz., the town they were trying to save, when they were overrun by flames.

They should never have been put in that position. Since Yarnell had already been evacuated, these men were lost trying to save not lives but houses. Homeowners who live in wildfire-prone areas shouldn't expect their highly flammable property to be rescued during extreme fires.

Wildland firefighters — those who fight vegetation fires instead of house fires — are trained to protect human life, property and natural resources, in that order. For most of the 20th century, the amount of property that needed protection from wildfires was fairly limited, and wildland firefighters focused mostly on protecting natural resources, particularly timber.

But since 1970, there has been an expansion of more than 50 percent in the rural and low-density housing communities that border state and federally owned wildlands. These communities are more concentrated in the western United States, where steep terrain and long, dry summers compound the problem. For example, more than a million new homes were built in high fire danger areas in California, Oregon and Washington since 1990. But homes are built amid dense, flammable vegetation everywhere from Florida to Michigan to Texas to New Jersey.

In parts of the country prone to earthquakes and flooding, owners and developers must purchase expensive hazard insurance — homeowners in areas affected by Hurricane Sandy, for instance, have seen a 25 percent increase in rates. New construction often must meet specialized codes designed to mitigate potential catastrophe, such as requirements that homes in coastal areas be built on stilts.

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