For years, ranchers listed 1976 and 1977 as the worst drought conditions in memory. Now, with no rainfall in nearly a month and forecasts calling for dry conditions to continue, many are worried that 2014 could be even worse.
"It's pretty dire out there," said Tim Tesconi, interim manager of the Sonoma County Farm Bureau. Some livestock ranchers' ponds and reservoirs are drying up, especially in the Two Rock and Chileno Valley areas outside Petaluma, forcing them to truck in water at great cost. Ranchers around the county are having to buy hay much earlier than usual because grass is not growing. The added expenses are causing some to start culling the weaker animals from their herds.
"There are farmers who can't pay their bills," said Larry Peter, who works with many dairies as owner of Petaluma Creamery and Spring Hill Jersey Cheese.
He said he knows of six dairy farmers having to haul water, which costs roughly $150 to $200 a load. For a rancher with a larger herd, that can add up to $2,000 or more a day, he said.
Peter says he was giving a neighbor water from his own ranch, but had to stop as his supply dwindled. He may have to start trucking in water soon for the 300 dairy cattle he keeps on Spring Hill Road west of Petaluma. His lake is fed by a spring and will be empty in about two weeks, he said.
To offset his water needs, he is giving his cows organic lactose left over from the process of making whey. The lactose provides the cows with moisture and other nutrients.
"I've been in the dairy business 27 years, and I've never seen a drought like this," he said.
Still, Peter is in better shape than some because he's not yet having to buy hay or silage. He grew his own silage and thinks he has enough to last through late February, when he'll have to start buying it unless it rains. Normally, he never runs out.
Sebastopol sheep farmer Rex Williams also put aside hay for the winter, but is using it months ahead of when he normally would. He expects it will last another 45 days, at which point he may have to start buying hay to feed his dairy sheep in February and March.
"I'm figuring out my feed budgets now and seeing if I can afford to buy more hay, how many sheep I can afford," he said. He and his wife already have reduced their herd of about 400 by a third and are preparing to sell an additional 15 to 20 ewes that are not pregnant.
He expects that, like other farmers, he may have to start charging more for the lamb he sells at farmers markets.
Don DeBernardi, a dairy rancher with about 1,600 cattle in the Two Rock area, also is having to buy a lot more feed than usual. "There's no pasture at all, so we're buying feed, and there's no local feed left," he said.
Norm Yenni farms hay near Sears Point and affirmed that local hay supplies are running low. He planted last year's crop in March, after the majority of the rain fell for the year.
"Historically, it's the best time to plant," he said. But because of the dry conditions, he only got about two-thirds his normal crop.