The summer day is warm and the wind is absent. At lakes and other bodies of still water, dragonflies dart here and there, almost too fast to follow with your eyes. They are the messengers of summer, and they can be dazzling with their intricate beauty.
Dragonflies evolved about 300 million years ago, long before even dinosaurs roamed the earth. Dragonfly fossils have shown they had wingspans of up to 2 feet. The ones we see today have wingspans from 2 to 5 inches. They are a gift to humans, as they eat many insects, including mosquitoes.
Dragonflies and their close cousins, damselflies, are mating now. Don’t blink, as mating is over in a flash. Most dragonflies mate in the air, and it’s quite an aerobatic feat. The female’s eggs are fertilized only as she lays them. She will lay her eggs on a plant in the water, though some species lay theirs in the water directly.
When her eggs hatch, dragonfly nymphs emerge and begin the aquatic portion of their life. They will live in water, breathing through gills, for months, or even one to two years, depending on the species. These nymphs are voracious, eating just about everything that lives in the water, including each other.
The nymphs are rather alien-looking, and they are lightning fast as they attack their prey. For a small, brown aquatic insect, they are amazing predators.
Over the months they spend in the water, they will molt about twelve times, shedding their outer skin. In late spring, or early summer, they will emerge from their watery home, and climb up the stem of a plant.
The nymphs’ exoskeletons then crack open, and fully-grown dragonflies emerge, with wings tucked close to their bodies. The skin left behind is called exuvia, and it can sometimes be found stuck on stems long after the dragonfly has flown away.
As dragonflies begin their second phase of life, they slowly extend their four wings to allow them to dry in the air. As plain as they were in their nymph stage, their metamorphosis is a wonder to behold, as they look like living jewels.
It’s no wonder that dragonflies are seen by many, including some Native Americans, to be a symbol of resurrection and renewal.
Dragonflies lifespans as winged creatures are only several weeks to two months long. Late summer is the perfect time to see them.
If you spend some time watching them, you will be amazed at their flying ability. Because they have four wings that can operate independently of each other, they can fly up, down, sideways, backwards, and even hover like a helicopter. Dragonflies need to be excellent fliers as they eat by capturing insects in mid-air.
If you look at a dragonfly’s head, you will see that it is mostly comprised of their massive, multifaceted eyes. And, yes, they have excellent eyesight. In fact, scientists have discovered dragonflies can even see many more colors than humans.
Humans have tri-chromatic vision, meaning that we see colors as a combination of red, blue and green. This is due to three different types of proteins in our eyes called opsins. When twelve species of dragonflies were studied, each one had no fewer than eleven opsins, and some many more. Imagine what a rainbow looks like to a dragonfly.